Scientists are the people who conducts exhaustive research to advance knowledge in the field of their interest.The unrestricted scope spammed across vast discoveries in pure and applied sciences. It is the most encompassing the most researched, as well as the most unbiased ranking of scientists from every part of the world including mathematician. Scientists, mathematicians, engineers work day and night to make these innovations happen. Their contributions and important discoveries have given us a better understanding of our world and formed the basis of modern disruptive technologies. The following lists are up top 10 greatest scientists who changed the world we’ve ever seen.
1. Albert Einstein – The whole package (1879-1955)
Albert Einstein is one of the most influential scientists of 20th century. Einstein was born on March 14,1879 in Ulm, Germany. He servived with his father, mother and sister. Einstein tried in vain to unify all the forces of the universe in a single theory, or theory of everything, which he was still working on at the time of his death.
Albert Einstein find the law, E=MC^2 is famous even among those who don’t understand it’s underlining physics. The 3 laws of Albert Einstein are -Objects in motion or at rest remain in the same state unless an external force inposes change. This is also known as the concept of inertia. The force acting on an object is equal to the mass of the object multiplied by its acceleration. Einstein is also known for his theory of general relativity (an explanation of gravity)and the photoelectric effect(which explain the behavior of electron under certain circumstances) ;his work on the later earned him a Noble Prize in physics in 1921.
2. Sir Issac Newton – The man who defined science on a bet (1643-1727)
Sir Issac Newton was born on 4 January 1643 in UK. He was one of the greatest mathematicians and physicists of all time and most influential scientists. Issac Newton was famous for having invented calculus in the mid to late 1660s and for having formulated the theory of universal gravity.Newton also well known for his discoveries in white light. In optics, his discovery of the composition of white light integrated the phenomena of colors into the science of light which further laid the foundation of modern physical optics.
Newton’s 3 laws of motion state that :
1) Every object in a state of uniform motion will remain in that state of motion unless an external forces acts on it.
2) Force equals mass times acceleration;F=MA.
3) For every action there is an equal and opposite reaction.
He also built the first working reflecting telescope. He showed that Kepler’s laws of planetary motion are exceptional cases Newton’s universal gravitation.
3. Galileo Galilei – Discoverer of the cosmos (1564-1642)
Galileo was an Italian astronomer and physicist who born on 15 February 1564 at Italy.From the seventeenth century onward, Galileo has been seen by many as the “hero” of modern science.He was best known for his renowned discoveries. He was the first to report telescopic observations of the mountains on the moon.Galileo pioneered the use of the telescope for observing the night sky. His discoveries undermined traditional ideas about a perfect and unchanging cosmos with the earth at it’s center. He also observed that venus went through a full set of phases.
Galileo was one of the first modern thinkers to clearly state that the laws of nature are mathematical. His mathematical analyses are a further development of a tradition employed by late scholastic natural philosopher, which Galileo learned when he studied philosophy. Philosophically, Galileo has been used to exemplify many different themes, usually as a personification of whatever the writers wished to make the hallmark of the scientific revolution.
Discoveries:the phases of venus, Jupiter’s moons, the stars of the milky Way , the first pendulum clock.
4. Marie Curie – She went her own way (1867-1934)
Marie Curie was the first woman to win a Nobel Prize in physics and chemistry. She was the first who claimed nobel honors twice. She was also known as “Madame Curie”born on 7 November 1867 in Poland.She wanted to become a teacher but lacked the money necessary to gain a formal education.She researched on radioactivity. She also discover radium and polonium with her husband Pierre Curie. The discovery of radium and polonium allowed us to define the properties of radioactivity, a term coined by the researcher herself. The finding that elements such as uranium emitted radiation was joined in the same period with the discovery of the electron , which proved that the atom was not indivisible as was believed. Marie Curie is credited with the invention of mobile X-ray units during World War. She also paved the way for radiation therapy, a technique where radiation is used to shrink tumors and destroy cancer cells.
5. Aristotle (382BC-322BC)
Aristotle whose name means”the best purpose” was one of the greatest philosopher and polymath in Ancient Greece. He was born on 384BC in Stagira, Northern Greece and studied in Platonic Academy at seventeen or eighteen years of age.Greek philosopher and scientist Aristotle wrote about virtually every area of knowledge, including most of the science. Throughout his life he made careful observations, collected specimens, and summarised all the existing knowledge of the natural world. He pioneered the study of zoology , developing a classification system for all animals and make extensive taxonomic studies. He literally invented the concept of metaphysics single handedly when he placed his book on abstract philosophical speculation after his book on physics. And stabilized his learning-how information is collected, assimilated and interpreted. Aristotle invented the logic of the categorical syllogism. This process of logical deduction was invented by Aristotle, and perhaps lies at the heart of all his achievements. He was the first person to come up with a authentic and logical procedure to conclude a statement based on the propositions that were at hand.
6. Nikola Tesla – Wizard of the industria (1856-1943)
Nikola Tesla was one of the most brilliant and influential scientists of all time who changed the world.He was born on July 10 ,1856 to Serbian parents in Samiljan, Austrian empire.He developed the three phases system of electric power transmission.He celebrated for his experiments in electricity, X-ray, remote control and wireless communications. His invention of the Tesla coil,an induction coil was instrumental in the development of radio technology.
Tesla coil was one of his most famous invention and certainly one of his most spectacular,the tesla coil was a product of his ambition to create a system that could transmit electricity wirelessly. The system consist of two parts a primary and secondary coil, both of which have their own capacitor.
Nikola Tesla was an American inventor and engineer who discovered and patented the rotating magnetic field, the basis of most alternating current machinery. Greatest contribution to humanity was his influence on the development of Alternating current (AC). Another most noteworthy inventions of Nikola Tesla are-tesla turbine, radio, magnifying transmitter, induction motor, hydroelectric power, the shadow graph, neon light and Tesla valve.
7. Charles Darwin – Delivering the Evolutionary Gospel (1809-1882)
Charles Darwin was best known for his contributions to evolutionary biology. He was born in Shrewsbury Shropshire, on 12 February 1809.He was an English naturalist whose scientific theory of evolution by natural selection became the foundation of modern evolutionary studies. Darwin best known for natural selection and his analysis of the plants and animals . He gathered led him to question how species form and change over time. This work convinced him of the insight that he is most famous for natural selection.
Charles Darwin discovered a lot as scientists and naturalist. He developed and proposed a theory about evolution.His theory has had far- reaching affects on science and the way we understand life. As an author he impacted the science and the way we think about our world.He and his fellow pioneers of the field of biology gave us insight into the fantastic diversity of life on earth and it’s origin , including our own as a species.
Darwin analyzed 5 theories with modern hindsight: these are-evolution as such, common descent, gradualism, multiplication of species and natural selection.
8. Thomas Edison – American inventor (1847-1931)
Thomas Edison was the greatest inventor in history.He was one of the fast inventors to apply the principle of organized science and team work to the process of invention.He was an American inventor and businessman born on february 11,1847.Edison was regarded as the most famous and prolific inventor in American history of all time.He has over 1000 patents in his name. Thomas Edison best known for inventing many useful items including the phonograph and a practical light bulb.
Once,Thomas Alva Edison exerted a tremendous influence on modern life contributing inventions such as incandescent light bulb, the phonograph, and the motion picture camera , as well as improving the telegraph and telephone.As a telegraph operator, Thomas became interested in communications, which would be the focus of many of his inventions. Edison used his inventions to form companies including General electric which is one of the biggest corporation in the world today. Three of his most famous inventions including, Phonograph, light bulb and motion picture.
9. Michael Faraday – Scientist (1791-1867)
Michael Faraday was one of the greatest scientists of the 19th century, born on September 22,1791 in England. He began his career as a chemist. He was a British physicist and chemicist. His many experiments contributed greatly to the understanding of electromagnetism.Faraday was most famous for his contributions to the understanding of electricity and electrochemistry.
In 1820 he produced the first known compounds of carbon and chlorine , Hexachloroethane (C2Cl6) and Tetrachloroethylene (C2Cl4).These compounds are produced by Substituting chlorine for hydrogen in “Olefiant gas (ethylene). In 1821,he succeed In producing mechanical motion by means of a permanent magnet and an electric current-an ancestor of the electric motor.Ten years later he converted magnetic force into electrical force ,thus inventing the world’s first electrical generator.In course of providing that electricities by various means,Faraday discovered the two laws electrolysis.
In 1825 , as a result of research, Faraday isolated and described benzene. In 1845 , to improve the quality of optical glass for telescopes, he produced a glass of very high refractive index that was to lead him to discover of diamagnetism .
10. Louis Pasteur – French chemist (1822-1895)
Pasteur was regarded as one of the fathers of germ theory of diseases which was a minor medical concept at the time. He was from Dole, jura, France born on 27 December 1822 in a catholic family. He servived with his 5 children’s and his wife Marie Laurent. Louis Pasteur was the director of the Pasteur Institute.Pasteur was a French chemist and microbiologist.Louis Pasteur is most famous for developing the “Pasteurization ” theory.
During 19th century Pasteur demonstrated that microorganisms cause disease and discovered how to make vaccines from weekend Or attenuated microbes .Then he discovered the developments of vaccines for rabies and anthrax. So, He regarded as one of the founders of modern bacteriology. He has been honored as the “father of bacteriology”, and as the father of microbiology.Pasteur’s contributions to science, technology and medicines are nearly without precedent. He is best known to the general public for his invention of the technique of treating milk and wine to stop bacterial contamination, a process now called pasteurization. In 1848 , he resolved a problem concerning the nature of tartaric acid. Pasteur also wrote about alcoholic fermentation.